Monday, December 7, 2015


Point of view (1st, 2nd, 3rd; objective, limited omniscient, omniscient)
  • 1st person: narrator is referring to him or herself (I, me, my, mine)
  • 2nd person: addressing the reader (you, your, yours)
  • 3rd person: observer's perspective (she, he, her, his, their, theirs)
  • Objective: when the observer remains detached from the character
  • Limited Omniscient: when the narrator has limited knowledge to one character
  • Omniscient: narrator knows all thoughts, feelings and actions of all characters
Setting (historical, geographical, physical)
  • Historical: a setting that helps the reader understand a story or event
  • Geographical: Specific place were a story is taking place
  • Physical: where a story takes place, the surroundings
character (flat, round, static, dynamic)

  • Flat: uncomplicated, two dimensional, don't change throughout a course of work 
  • Round: complex, undergo development
  • Static: undergoes little or no inner change
  • Dynamic: undergoes an important inner change
plot: used to describe the events that make up a story in a sequential order
exposition: insertion of important background information in a story
rising action: series of events that leads to the point of greatest interest
climax: the turning point of the story, the point were the rising action reaches the falling action
stream of consciousness: a persons thoughts and conscious reactions to events in a continuos flow
central consciousness: the story is told through the view of only how the main protagonist sees and experiences it
unreliable narrator: when a narrators credibility has been compromised
epiphany: moment in the story where a character achieves a realization, awareness or a feeling of knowledge
motif: an element of subject that is constantly presented through the whole work
“unlike gesture” in O’Connor: some gesture of a character that is unlike any previous gesture in the story, the action is both right but unexpected, one that indicated where the true heart of the story lies, ex- when the grandmother is faced by the Misfit alone in "A Good Man is Hard to Find"
novel: fictitious prose narrative, describes fictional characters and events with a degree of realism
foreshadowing: indication of a future event
abstract diction: language that describes qualities that cannot be perceived with the five senses
alliteration: occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of words
allusion: indirectly calling something to mind without actually saying what it is
apostrophe: when the speaker directs speech to a third party
approximate rhyme: rhyme where sounds are similar but not exactly the same
archetypes: constantly recurring symbol or motif in literature
assonance: repetition of the same sound of vowel
blank verse: poem with no rhyme but has iambic pentameter
cacophony: harshness in sound of words or phrases
caesura: break between words within a metrical foot
closed form: structure of poetry characterized by regularity and constant poem elements
concrete diction: words that stimulate some kind of sensory response to reader
connotation: idea or feeling that a words invokes 
consonance: agreement or compatibility between opinions or actions
denotation: direct meaning from a word or expression
diction: the choice and use of words and phrases
dimeter: metrical line of verse with two feet
dramatic irony: drama that is understood by the audience but not characters in story
dramatic poetry: any dramatic work written in lines of verse
elegy: a poem of reflection, typically a lament for the dead
end rhyme: when the words at the end of a poems lines rhyme
end-stopped line: when a line of poetry ends with a definite punctuation mark
enjambment: continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line, couplet or stanza
epic: long poem, typically concerning a serious subject with heroic deeds and events significant to a culture of nation
epigram: short poem, typically with a witty or ingenious ending
epigraph: short quotation or saying at the beginning of a book or chapter, usually suggests a theme
essay (essai): short piece of writing on a particular subject
euphony: quality of being pleasing to the ear, harmonious combination of words
figures of speech: word or phrase used in a nonliteral sense to add rhetorical force to a spoken or written work
form: arrangement of the elements in a composition
free verse: a poem without rhyme or regular meter
haiku: poem from the Japanese origin, seventeen syllables, 3 lines: 5, 7, 5 syllables. Usually evokes images of nature
half rhyme: when the stressed syllables of ending consonants match but the preceding vowel sounds don't match
hyperbole: exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally
imagery: visually or figuratively descriptive language
imperfect rhyme: rhyme with only partial matching of sounds
internal rhyme: rhyme that occurs within a line of a verse 
irony: expression of ones meaning by using the opposite, used for humorous effect
lyric poetry: short, songlike poem 
masculine rhyme: rhyme on a single stressed syllable at the end of a line of poetry
meditation: written or spoken discourse expressing thoughts on a subject
metaphor: figure of speech that compares two unlike things with a common characteristic, usually something compared to an object or thing 
meter: unit of rhythm in poetry, the pattern of the beats, also called a foot
metonymy: substitution of the name of an attribute or adjunct for that of the thing meant
narrative poetry: poetry that tells a story, makes use of the voices of a narrator and character, usually written in metered verse
near rhyme: words that sound the same but do not rhyme perfectly
octave: poem or stanza of 8 lines
ode: lyric poem that addresses a particular person or thing
open form: reject classic organization and structure of a poem and impose your own rules to your poem
pastoral: portraying idyllically the life of shepherds or of the country 
pentameter: line consisting of five meters
persona: aspect of someones character that is presented to or perceived by others
personification: attribution of a personal nature or human characteristic to something non-human or the representation of an abstract quality in human form
Petrarchan sonnet: sonnet form consisting of an octave with the rhyme scheme abbabba and of a sestet with either cdecde or cdcdcd
prose poem: piece of writing in prose having obvious poetic qualities (i.e. intensity, compactness, prominent rhymes, imagery)
quatrain: stanza with 4 lines
rhyme: when sounds between words correspond together
rhyme scheme: ordered patter of rhymes at the end of lines of a poem or verse
rhythm: strong, regular, repeted patter of movement or sound
run on line: (enjambment)- incomplete syntax at the end of a line of poetry
scansion: process of determining and graphically representing the metrical character of a line of verse
Shakespearean sonnet: written in iambic pentameter, 3 quatrains and a final couplet with the rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef gg 
slant rhyme: rhyme with words of similar sounds but not identical
simile: figure of speech comparing two unlike things, without like or as
speaker: narrative voice in a poem
stanza: grouping of lines in a poem
symbol: something that represents something else, usually something material representing something abstract
synecdoche: figure of speech where part is made to represent the whole
synesthesia: technique used to present ideas, character, places in a manner that appeals to the senses
tone: attitude of a piece of writing, situation, place
understatement: figure of speech used to intentionally make a situation seem less important than it really is
whole rhyme: when the stressed vowel sound and subsequent sounds are identical in two words
quest: long/arduous search for something
grotesque: comically or repulsively ugly or distorted, usually characters who induce both empathy and disgust
Beat Generation: group of authors whose literature explored and influenced American culture in the post-World War II era. Most work was published in the 1950s
“Howl”: poem by Allen Ginsberg in 1955 

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